Demonstration of 40-nm Channel Length Top-gate p-MOSFET of WS2 Channel Directly Grown on SiOx/Si Substrates Using Area-Selective CVD TechnologyFor high-volume manufacturing of 2-D transistors, area-selective chemical reaction deposition (CVD) growth is able to provide good-quality 2-D layers and may be more effective than exfoliation from bulk crystals or wet/dry transfer of large-area as-grown 2-D layers. We have successfully grown continuous and uniform WS 2 film comprising around seven layers by area-selective CVD approach using patterned tungsten source/drain metals as the seeds. The growth mechanism is inferred and supported by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, as well. The first top-gate MOSFETs of CVD-WS 2 channels on SiO x /Si substrates are demonstrated to have good short channel electrical characteristics: ON-/OFF-ratio of 10 6 , a subthreshold swing of 97 mV/decade, and nearly zero drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL).
Vertical Gate-All-Around Nanowire GaSb-InAs Core-Shell n-Type Tunnel FETsTunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TFET) are one of the most promising candidates for future low-power CMOS applications including mobile and Internet of Things (IoT) products. A vertical gate-all-around (VGAA) architecture with a core shell (C-S) structure is the leading contender to meet CMOS footprint requirements while simultaneously delivering high current drive for high performance specifications and subthreshold swing below the Boltzmann limit for low power operation. In this work, VGAA nanowire GaSb/InAs C-S TFETs are demonstrated experimentally for the first time with key device properties of subthreshold swing S = 40 mV/dec (Vd = 10 mV) and current drive up to 40 μA/wire (Vd = 0.3 V, diameter d = 50 nm) while dimensions including core diameter d, shell thickness and gate length are scaled towards CMOS requirements. The experimental data in conjunction with TCAD modeling reveal interface trap density requirements to reach industry standard off-current specifications.
First Demonstration of 40-nm Channel Length Top-Gate WS2 pFET Using Channel Area-Selective CVD Growth Directly on SiOx/Si SubstrateArea-selective channel material growth for 2D transistors is more desirable for volume manufacturing than exfoliation or wet/dry transfer after large area growth. We demonstrate the first top-gate WS 2 p-channel field-effect transistors (p-FETs) fabricated on SiOx/Si substrate using channel area-selective CVD growth. Smooth and uniform WS 2 comprising approximately 6 layers was formed by area-selective CVD growth in which a patterned tungsten-source/drain served as the seed for WS 2 growth. For a 40 nm gate length transistor, the device has impressive electrical characteristics: on/off ratio of ~106, a S.S. of ~97 mV/dec., and nearly zero DIBL.
An Unique Methodology to Estimate The Thermal Time Constant and Dynamic Self Heating Impact for Accurate Reliability Evaluation in Advanced FinFET TechnologiesThe increasing impact of self-heating effect (SHE) in complex FinFET structure is a serious reliability concern. Although the evaluation of SHE has become extremely arduous; this work proposes an in-situ layout based experimental solution to find out the precise thermal time constant (T TH ) due to SHE on advanced FinFET devices, even with the application of very pragmatic `circuit-like' gate and drain input waveforms. Using this precise T TH , the accurate dynamic thermal profile is found out from SPICE simulations. Finally, the true degradations due to different reliability mechanisms are evaluated including SHE impact and successfully compared with measured FinFET silicon data.
7nm FinFET Plasma Charge Recording DeviceA new wafer-level coupling plasma charge recorder fabricated with 7nm FinFET CMOS logic process is presented in this paper. This plasma ion charge recording device provides the historic and quantitative plasma ion charges of damascene metallization steps in advanced 7nm FinFET COMS logic processes. The high-resolution plasma ion recorder is formed by an accurate FinFET coupling structure to store the plasma ion level and distribution of the whole wafer. By a simple wafer-level WAT measurement, the promising plasma charge recording device can efficiently collect the accumulated ion charges, ion polarization, and tiny plasma fluctuation of each metallization process step in 7nm FinFET CMOS logic technologies, which definitely provides a superior device and method in developing a reliable and non-latent plasma damage process for 7nm FinFET technology and beyond.
Ge CMOS gate stack and contact development for Vertically Stacked Lateral Nanowire FETsWe present (i) a novel, thermally stable Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) high-k dielectric stack that, for the first time, has the potential to meet all gate stack requirements for both n- and p-channel Ge FETs, (ii) record low contact resistivity for n-Ge/metal contacts using an implant-free contact scheme with successful implementation into a single nanowire (NW) Ge nFET baseline, (iii) single NW Ge pFETs with short-channel effect (SCE) immunity down to 24 nm physical gate length, of which electrical data show excellent agreement with calibrated models and (iv) demonstration of Ge-channel vertically stacked lateral NW FETs using a 300 mm VLSI compatible platform.
Tackling Fundamental Challenges of Carrier Transport and Device Variability in Advanced Si nFinFETs for 7nm Node and BeyondWe demonstrated that the fundamental scaling challenges of carrier transport and device variability can be tackled by S/D epitaxy and HK/MG RPG optimizations on the leading-edge 7nm Si n FinFETs, paving the way for continuous scaling. Mitigations of S/D long-range Coulomb interactions and gate-corner work-function roll-up enhance IDSAT by 18% and 9% respectively at constant gate overdrive, translating to a 13% speed-power enhancement in the ring oscillator. These techniques show larger IDSAT enhancements than that of IDLIN. By using an improved characterization method, their unique transport characteristics are clarified.
A simulation perspective: The potential and limitation of Ge GAA CMOSThe electrical characteristics of <110> n/p Ge nanowire transistors (NWTs) with the cross section of 6×6nm2 have been studied. The ION performance and the subthreshold swing are simulated by multi-subband Boltzmann transport equation and ballistic quantum transport solvers, respectively. The performance of <110> nGe NWTs is sensitive to the barrier height of interfacial layer due to highly-anisotropic Λ-valleys. The dimension-dependent k·p parameters based on tight-binding full band are used to address the strong confinement of pGe NWTs. Comparing to Si NWTs, the intrinsic ION is twice as high for both n/p Ge NWTs at 28nm channel length. As the channel length is scaled down, such ION benefit is maintained till the tunneling effect comes in and degrades the subthreshold swing.
Atomically flat and uniform relaxed III-V epitaxial films on silicon substrate for heterogeneous and hybrid integrationThe integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon (Si) substrate has been an active field of research for more than 30 years. Various approaches have been investigated, including growth of buffer layers to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the Si substrate and the III-V layer, Si- or Ge-on-insulator, epitaxial transfer methods, epitaxial lateral overgrowth, aspect-ratio-trapping techniques, and interfacial misfit array formation. However, manufacturing standards have not been met and significant levels of remaining defectivity, high cost, and complex integration schemes have hampered large scale commercial impact. Here we report on low cost, relaxed, atomically smooth, and surface undulation free lattice mismatched III-V epitaxial films grown in wide-fields of micrometer size on 300 mm Si(100) and (111) substrates. The crystallographic quality of the epitaxial film beyond a few atomic layers from the Si substrate is accomplished by formation of an interfacial misfit array. This development may enable future platforms of integrated low-power logic, power amplifiers, voltage controllers, and optoelectronics components.
TSMC has been at the forefront of advanced CMOS logic technologies for which dense transistors are one of the two essential building blocks, the other being dense interconnect stacks. The intrinsic computing capability of a given logic technology is directly related to the number of interconnected transistors and their switching speed under representative loads originating from both the transistor or gates being driven and the related interconnect resistive and capacitive circuit loads.
TSMC research and development is continuously exploring novel and scalable transistor concepts to ensure sustainable, cost-effective, leading-edge logic technology performance and energy efficiency. We invite you to explore some of TSMC research areas in transistor structure, high-mobility channel, and low-dimensional materials and devices.